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By Stephen J. Lee

During this sequel to his renowned features of eu heritage, 1494 - 1789, Stephen J. Lee charts the main as a rule encountered subject matters of 19th and 20th century historical past, from the origins of the French Revolution, during the social and political reforms and upheavals of the final centuries to the current. invaluable and obtainable, the booklet comprises: * an invigorating consultant and sound resource of history fabric * brief analytical chapters* an interpretative method of heritage, delivering a number of viewpoints on each one topic* either a wide survey and particular experiences* stimulation for student's skill to increase and make clear subject* a cautious constitution which aids notetaking, practise of essays and revision. Any scholar of ecu background probably want to have this ebook at their side throughout their path stories.

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The Treaty of London followed in 1827, together with the destruction of the Turkish fleet by Britain, Russia and France at Navarino. The period 1825–7 showed a definite, if temporary, withdrawal from what must have appeared to be entrenched positions on foreign policy. As a result, Russia would have had little motive to construct a rival system of councils with Britain as the target, even assuming that she could have attained the necessary agreement with Austria. It seemed, in 1820, that Britain and France had much in common.

In October 1820, Alexander renounced his progressive views and confessed to Metternich: ‘You have correctly judged the state of affairs. ’9 Alexander’s conversion brought the two countries closer together ideologically at the very time that British policy was at its most obstructive, but it did not eliminate Austro-Russian rivalries altogether. Alexander had always pressed for a more sweeping view than Metternich’s of the role of the Congress System and now wanted joint action to suppress the revolutions in Spain and Naples.

His attitude during the Russian campaign is particularly revealing. 26 His marshals thought otherwise and attempted, unsuccessfully, to dissuade him. ’ Reminded of the failure of Charles XII and the Swedish army in similar circumstances in 1709, Napoleon revealed an insight into his basic philosophy. ’26 Hitler made similar comments in 1941 when reminded of the fate of Napoleon. Another shortcoming of Napoleon as a leader was his inability to delegate authority effectively. He never seriously considered training a successor and rarely attempted to impart the underlying principles of his military success to his marshals.

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