By Eric C. Dahlberg
Within the first version of this e-book, we saw that it were created to fill a necessity for a usable "self-contained quantity on hydrodynamics" (and hydrogeology) that used to be written in particular for the petroleum undefined, yet may also serve the earth technological know-how neighborhood normally. while the 1st version was once released (1982), M. okay. Hubbert, the daddy of petroleum hydrodynamics, used to be impending the ultimate phases of his very effective occupation. as a result, the publication served as a automobile to enlarge his ideas and unfold and stimulate functions of a few of his theories and strategies during the exploration sectors of the petroleum undefined. This was once complete by means of mixing discussions of Hubbert's thoughts with a number of the strategies utilized by experts to respond to sensible oil and gasoline questions. the straightforward objective of the e-book used to be to convey this fabric to the fingertips of operating geologists and geophysicists, who have been "evaluating the hydrocarbon chances in higher exploration areas or assessing the potential for small, neighborhood subsurface oil and gasoline clients. " It was once additionally was hoping that via treating parts of conceptual overlap among petroleum geology and floor water hydrology, staff in either disciplines will be introduced into nearer touch, leading to mutual advantages won via fit medical and technical interplay. This is still our target within the moment variation, even though it has develop into obvious that extra fabric is required to satisfactorily in attaining it. the scale of this quantity displays the recent material.
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Extra resources for Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration
Figure 4-1. Cross-sectional model showing constant potentiometric surface approximation based on four wells. No flow inferred. 43 Inference of Subsurface Flow Patterns A . 8 c - .... Figure 4-2. Cross-sectional model showing four-point potentiometric surface approximation reflecting flow to the west. tilted in that direction and, since fluids flow from regions of high to low potential, water movement in a westerly direction is inferred. A topographic low on the potentiometric surface with flow converging from the east and west is shown in Figure 4-3.
If this water potential low is really "closed" and not a creation of the contouring procedure, it might be explained as a density-related low caused by more saline waters, a region of increased pressure attributable to osmosis, an area of vertical interformational migration or one of fluid destruction possibly by conversion to another physical or chemical form. The important aspect is not specifically what is happening to the water but rather what is the relationship of the potentiometric low on the map to the local accumulations of oil and gas.
Cross-sectional model showing potentiometric surface approximation reflecting converging flow. ;~. ••• . : •••••: : : Figure 4-4. Cross-sectional model showing potentiometric surface approximation reflecting divergent flow from a fault zone. From the heights of the water columns in wells A, B, C and D in Figure 4-5 one might infer a divergent formation water flow pattern such as that of Figure 4-4. However, this inference would be erroneous, since as the cross-section discloses there is no flow at all!