Mining

Download Applied Drilling Engineering by Jr. Adam T. Bourgoyne, Keith K. Millheim, Martin E. PDF

By Jr. Adam T. Bourgoyne, Keith K. Millheim, Martin E. Chenevert, Jr. F. S. Young

An and educational ordinary, utilized Drilling Engineering provides engineering technology basics in addition to examples of engineering purposes regarding these basics. appendices are integrated, in addition to quite a few examples. solutions are incorporated for each end-of-chapter query. Contents: Rotary drilling - Drilling fluids - Cements - Drilling hydraulics - Rotary drilling bits - Formation pore strain and fracture resistance - Casing layout - Directional drilling and deviation keep an eye on - Appendix: improvement of equations for non-Newtonian drinks in a rotational viscometer - Appendix: improvement of slot movement approximations for annular move for non-Newtonian fluids.

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Example text

Surface mining involves a quarrying down to 100 m (exceptionally to 200 m), with large amounts of overburden being generated. The stripping ratios are variable, but currently, ratios of 20:1 are economic (British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, 2010). 2 Iron ore copper, tin, lead and silver mining Little copper or iron are mined today (British Geological Survey Commissioned Report, 2010). However, some tin and lead are produced from deep mines in England, Wales and Scotland. 3 Industrial minerals The United Kingdom is well endowed with a wide range of industrial minerals which are used in the manufacturing of chemicals, ceramics, plaster products, glass.

Org/resources/coal‐statistics/, accessed 13 August 2013. 3 Top five brown coal producers (2011). org/resources/coal‐statistics/, accessed 13 August 2013. 4 Types of mine waste disposal In general, there are four ways in which mine waste is produced: (1) Overburden: the soil and rock that is removed to gain access to a mineral resource. (2) Waste rock: rock that does not contain enough mineral of economic interest. (3) Tailings: these are finely ground host rocks from which the desired minerals have largely been extracted.

It is usually stored in landfill sites near the mine site, so as to save the transportation cost (Sartz, 2010). Usually, opencast pits and quarries cause more mine waste generation than an underground mine. Waste rock mainly exposes shallow ore after surface stripping. Huge amounts of waste rock are generated everyday by mining and quarrying activities (Sartz, 2010). Disposal of mine waste from hard rock metal mines is the largest environmental problem. Tailings are processed waste, usually fine ground rock, from which valuable materials have been extracted.

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