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Powerful reducing agents at high pH as in most permanent-waving lotions). Cross-linking mechanisms ensure that the keratin helices are held together in a fairly rigid structure. The order in which the side chains occur is very variable; steric hindrance is minimised by most of the side chains adopting an outward-facing position, such that reactive groups on the side chains are more exposed to the possibility of chemical reaction with hair-care products. 3 Shampoos Shampoos may be made in various physical forms, liquids, creams or pastes, aerosol and dry.

J. 1 Introduction Before discussing product formulation, some general remarks about product development are appropriate. 1. Make sure that the brief is clear. There is little point in developing a wonderful product if it is not the one that was requested. The brief should include, as aminimum: (i) Required performance parameters in as much detail as possible (ii) Benchmark products, unless the development is in a completely newarea (iii) Guidelines on cost (iv) Proposed claims, and how these might be justified (v) The required timing 2.

Here, therefore, only specific comments about the most commonly used materials will be made. In the case of sodium lauryl ether sulphate (CTF A dictionary name sodium laureth sulphate) the general formula is R- (OCH2CH2). - OS03Na + where R is the alkyl chain ofvariable length, predominantly C I2 (Iauryl) and the average degree of ethoxylation n is equal to 2 or 3. The various methods of preparation for this surfactant are referred to in chapter land, depending on feedstock and the method used, many variations are possible.

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